ALMOST TWO POEMS

Published October 13, 2021 by Nan Mykel

POWDER PUFF WORDS

She’s staying at the “Laurels.”

At  Obleness her nurse was “Summer.”

Amazing what a difference

words can make.

“Mimosa,” the pink blooms, the lacy

leaves, an apron of delight.

Words become painted with use.

But how explain the loveliness

of “mayonnaise?”

DIFFICULT QUESTIONS

As a newbie at the door, two

questions are problematic.

If worse comes to worse,  should I

be resusitated?  (Ask the kid who was

cut out of my will).

And…how much pain do I feel,

right now?

(No pain, no gain.  Don’t hurt enough,

nothing to soothe).

BROKEN BONES AND CHAPTER 4

Published October 10, 2021 by Nan Mykel

 

 

 

 

 

 

It’s been a long life and especially long 2 weeks since I broke rwo bones in my right foot and was separated from my computer!  So, from a new setting I bring you last week’s overdue chapter, Treatment for Incest Offenders, from my book  FALLOUT,  a Survivor talks to Incest Offenders.

TREATMENT
To be considered for release from Wisconsin’s Sand Ridge Secure
Treatment Center, a civil commitment facility, inmate “patients”
must demonstrate that they have sustained change in their thoughts,
attitudes, emotions, behaviors, and their management of arousal
(Harkins, Beech and Thornton 2013, 7). This chapter describes
some treatment approaches towards that goal, but please note that
it is not all-inclusive…

The field of sex offender treatment is still young, and was in its
infancy in 1986, when our program began. As staff we diligently
read master pockets and took lengthy histories, searching for etiological clues that might suggest the best treatment approaches. We
turned to the research, the professional literature and professional
organizations, even became clinical members of the Association
for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers. We attended annual conferences. We ordered books, had a victims’ group visit the program,
attended training workshops, watched Oprah and Geraldo, and developed a mnemonic device to aid overlearning the effects of child
sexual abuse. We came to realize that we could not think in terms
of a cure for sex offending, only of decreasing the likelihood that
the men would reoffend.

The sex offenders seemed most open to rehabilitation when they
first entered the prison system. We admitted them to treatment immediately if they took responsibility for their offense.
After several years in the program, however, most received lengthy
“flops” from the parole board. Working with an incest offender
who receives a five-year flop after four or five years in the program
is discouraging for the offender, the treatment staff, and other
group members.

By the time I could retire, treatment at our prison had pretty much
ground to a halt. There was pressure not to admit men into treatment until they had served a significant amount of time. Unfortunately, by that time the offenders had usually acclimated to prison
mentality and were not good prospects for treatment.
It is fortunate that there is a new movement afoot in the treatment
of child molesters. As recently as 1972 one could find procedures
in the literature for “aversive therapy,” based on the 1966 work of
Azrin and Holtz, whose guidelines based on animal experiments
included such recommendations as no unauthorized escape is possible; the punishing stimulus should be as high as possible; the frequency should be as high as possible, etc. Serber and Wolpe quote
the recommendations, writing that “the use of these guidelines in
clinical practice may be expected to enhance materially the use of
aversive therapy” (Serber and Wolpe 1972, 246).

Despite the seriousness of the topic I had to laugh when I read in
Azrin and Holz (1966):
‘”A frequent reason for attempting to eliminate punishment is that aversive stimuli in general, and punishment in particular, produce disruptive and undesirable
emotional states.” (439)
and
“The changes in the punished response per se appear to
be distinctly secondary in importance to the social
products of the use of punishment.” (443).
My copy editor said she didn’t think it was funny. Maybe I do have
a weird sense of humor, but the idea of serious researchers having
to conclude that people don’t like being shocked made me laugh.
Marshall and Barbaree (1988, 505) reported on their own study,
which utilized a mild electric shock at an intensity which was set
by the patient at “an unpleasant but tolerable” level. As early as
1990 Quinsey and Earls observed that electrical aversion had gone
out of fashion (285). By 2009 no programs reported using electrical
aversive conditioning to control sexual arousal in a Safer Society
survey (McGrath et al. 2010).

A less controversial—and less painful—form of behavioral therapy is covert sensitization, discussed by Fernandez, Shingler, and
Marshall (2006), utilizing the imagination. A deviant fantasy is
paired with negative consequences that are realistic to the offender—involving for example disgust, fear, being caught, beaten,
etc. Positive outcomes for avoiding offending may also be imagined.
For those in outpatient treatment, the use of smelling salts is one
way of countering deviant thoughts. When experiencing deviant
arousal, the patient “is to hold his bottle of smelling salts, with the
cap removed, and take a rapid and deep inhalation. This reduces
deviant thoughts and provides the opportunity to initiate more positive thoughts” (Marshall and Barbaree 1990b, 366).
While the treatment we engaged in during the eighties and nineties
was not overtly punitive, I realize that in some ways we de-humanized the men in our program. In the literature today slaves are rarely
called slaves, but “enslaved people.” A similar case has been made
for men who molest. Fernandez (2006, 191–92), for instance, states
that adopting positive language in therapy can help offenders identify their existing strengths and find adaptive ways to meet their
needs more appropriately. “One particularly valuable way to do
this is to refrain from describing clients as ‘sex offenders,’ ‘rapists,’ ‘child molesters,’ or whatever legal/forensic term is applicable. Distinguishing people from their behaviors has a long tradition
in behavioral research and treatment. … It is also important not to
allow clients to label themselves.” (But of course AA does.) With
the goal being to help the man who molests to identify with his core
self rather than with his destructive behavior, some programs even
correct him if he refers to himself as an offender rather than as a
man. It isn’t realistic to practice that convention in this book, where
there’s so much to say and only so many ways to say it, but I recognize the point (despite the book’s title—sorry).
Fernandez (ibid., 188) also speaks out strongly against aggressive
confrontation. “If there was one thing we could recommend to sexual offender therapists it would be to avoid an aggressive confrontational approach with clients. Therapists inevitably serve as mod-els to their clients, thus their actions should exemplify social behaviors and attitudes.” What better way to teach empathy than for
therapists to model it in treatment group? Instead, we prided ourselves in our skills at confrontation, despite S alter’s (1988, 92) caution about the need for empathy:
The critically important factor is the simultaneous capacity for the therapist to extend respect to people as
human beings, to empathize with their pain, and to believe in their capacity to do better in the future while
not colluding with sexual abuse a single inch.

Negativity and excessive confrontation have been observed to deprive the man who molests of hope that he can meet his needs more
appropriately. Fernandez (2006, 188) observes that “apparent treatment gains of clients exposed to confrontational challenging are
either superficial or do not generalize outside of the treatment context.”
In treatment a difficult task for the therapist is to help the offender
accept responsibility for his actions, to realize the destructiveness
of sexual abuse—especially incest—to become motivated never to
repeat the abuse, and to learn how to get his needs met in less destructive ways.

According to Anna Salter (1988, 178):
“The single most vital issue in sex offender treatment is
whether or not the offender can change his behavior.
An offender must begin to understand that behavioral
change is more than simply announcing, ‘I won’t do it
again.’ Behavior change involves a series of lifestyle
changes designed to minimize the risk of reoffending.
It involves learning techniques for intervening when
deviant impulses arise, and showing a willingness to
implement them.
While strengthening the role of choice in behavior and taking responsibility for it are important, so are other contributing factors,
all of which need to be addressed in treatment. Helping offenders
understand what thinking errors are and how they contribute to offending also needs to be non-threatening.
In this approach the offender is told:

“After awhile, the things you say to yourself become almost automatic and you may not even realize you are
saying them. Our job is to help you identify these
things and try to show you why many of them are not
true. We call these things you say to yourself excuses,
justifications, minimizations, and cognitive distortions.” (Murphy 1990, 337)
Murphy also recommends that treatment staff need to guard against
contaminating treatment by immediately attempting to change the
molester’s distortions (no matter how convoluted). Some molesters
deny “because of their elaborate network of distorted ideas, which
have been arrived at through biased processes” (ibid).

Determining the factors that have weakened the perpetrator’s inhibitions against molesting a child is an early but difficult task in
treatment, since it must be done without encouraging excuse-making. An initial and ongoing history is taken and expanded as additional documents are extracted from the inmate’s master file. To
what extent is he being truthful? How well does he remember?
Since a full and accurate report of his offense history is almost
never forthcoming, there is heavy reliance on an educational approach in treatment. Soon after initiation of our prison program it
became apparent that there was a need for education in a number
of areas, including assertiveness training, child development, why
men molest, thinking errors and, yes, even human sexuality. Another advantage of the educational modules was that members of
our IDDI group (the I-Didn’t-Do-Its) could be involved in most of
them.

Marlatt and Donovan (2005) reported that the major therapeutic
approach for treating individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (usually survivors) might also be used with perpetrators,
along with Relapse Prevention. The approach is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), developed by Marsha Linehan, who has since
“come out” in the New York Times as a survivor of Borderline Personality Disorder (Carey 2011, A1).
Addressed in DBT are four areas of relevance to both survivors and
perpetrators:
1. The “mindfulness” module addresses maladaptive thought
processes and teaches skills for improved self-monitoring and
regulation.
2. The “emotion regulation” module addresses mood lability and
affective dysregulation and teaches skills for effectively identifying and managing emotions.
3. The “distress tolerance” module addresses maladaptive coping behaviors and teaches skills for managing impulsive/harmful behaviors in the face of inevitable life stressors.
4. The “interpersonal effectiveness” module addresses interactions with others and teaches skills for more effectively getting needs/goals met without violating the rights/needs of others.
(Marlatt and Donovan 2005, 342)
I have come to realize that several approaches can be profitably
used for both perpetrators and survivors, including assertiveness
training, schema work, and even, as reported by Naitove (1988),
arts therapies.
A treatment approach relating to shame that targets adolescent sex
offenders struck me as also appropriate for use by victims’ therapists. See Chapter 18 for more on the issue of shame.

Most sex offender treatment occurs in a group setting. Effective
exercises may include role-playing (having the offender role-play
a policeman or other individual whose job it is to confront distortions; the therapist then role-plays a child molester who uses various distortions, and gets confronted by the molester). Many variations of this format are possible, as is a Gestalt approach in which
a perpetrator may speak alternately as a molester and the policeman. .
Having the perpetrator write an apology letter to his victim (but not
to mail it) is another useful exercise. These letters can then be
scanned in order to reveal the offender’s continued lack of empathy
for his victim (Webster 2002). Statements are also checked for evidence of the offender’s intellectualized reabuse/reabusive stance
(overt and/or covert use of language that reabuses the victim), minimization of responsibility, and the participant’s egocentric
stance/self as important (for example, “I feel better now I have
written to you.”) Webster provides extremely helpful scoring templates for rating the letters of both child molesters and rapists in his
article (Webster 2002, Appendices).

During a training presentation in 1989 Jan Hindman described her
Thinking Errors component, in which members of a treatment
group keep a Thinking Errors Journal. If any of them verbalizes a
thinking error and 6 seconds pass without other members confronting it, all members must own the thinking error and claim it in their journal.
Group work is also useful in exploring schemas, using the analogy
of what one sees depending upon what kind of sunglasses one
wears. “Making use of humor, clients explore different situations
as they would be seen through different pairs of schema-spectacles.
“The exercises aim to make learning as light-hearted and engaging
as possible” (Mann and Shingler 2006, 182).

TAKE THIS TEST
A responsibility scenario may be posed to the sex offenders:
Mary and her husband live on the south bank of a river.
Her husband wants her to stay at home and not cross
the river to the town. She wants to go to town. There is
a bridge across the river, but men have been robbing
and killing people who cross the bridge, and Mary’s
husband won’t give her money for the ferry. Mary begins saving the grocery money and crossing the river
to town on the ferry while her husband is away. Finally, she meets a man in town and takes him as a lover.
She crosses the river more frequently and he gives her
money to get back home. He gets mad at her one day
and refuses to give her the return fare home. She asks
the ferryman to let her charge the return trip but he refuses, saying it is against company policy. Finally, she
crosses the bridge and is killed.
The discussion question is, “Whose fault is it that Mary was
killed?” (Responses and answer are on the last page of this chapter.)

ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILITY
The purpose of encouraging the offender to take responsibility for
his behavior is to enable him to realize that in the future he can also
be responsible for making a different choice.
During treatment, sex offenders try to find their place within the
motivational framework in order to better understand their own offending dynamics. Despite lip service to accepting responsibility
for the offense, it usually takes a long time for the men to realize
and/or admit to having actually planned the molestation with forethought. There is a focus on “it just happened” —a thinking error—
an approach that allows them to feel less responsible for their actions. A period of fantasizing about and grooming the destined victim almost always precedes the abuse (Christiansen and Blake
1990).

MEDICAL TREATMENT
Harrison has authored a thorough introduction to treatment by
pharmacotherapy, which she defines as “the use of drugs to lower
testosterone and in consequence lower and in some cases eradicate
libido, fantasies and deviant behavior” (Harrison 2010, 136).
A combination of psychotherapy and medical treatment has inreduce sexual desire in the offender. “Some argue that the offending ‘organ’ is the brain, not the penis, and physical castration will
some cases resulted in zero recidivism, although there are side effects that need to be taken into consideration. Its main use is to
not prevent an individual from using some other means to rape or
molest” (Meyer and Cole 1997, 13).
However, one cannot overlook the fact that biology
does play a major role here. The endocrine system, in
this case the testes, does affect behavior, particularly
the quality and intensity of sexual arousal, whether
normal or deviant. … This subject is clearly controversial and even regarded as barbaric by some. However,
one could argue that society needs to carefully explore
a variety of means to help reduce the epidemic of sexual violence and prevent further victimization. (Ibid.)
Harrison (2010) observes that one of the most contentious issues
concerning the use of pharmacotherapy is whether it should be provided on a voluntary or mandatory basis (that is, whether it is treatment or punishment).

SEX EDUCATION
Although it may appear incongruous, sex offenders—who are often prudish—are usually in need of sex education. After exploring
what’s illegal, one leading program emphasizes the normative nature of a whole range of sexual activities:
Within this context we attempt to relieve guilt associated
with masturbation and reduce prudishness relating to various precoital acts and to various positions during coitus.
We attempt to counter myths concerning sexuality, such as
the relevance of the size of the male penis, the goal of simultaneous orgasm, and, indeed, the idea that orgasm is the
only goal of sexual interaction. (Marshall and Barbaree
1990a, 368.)
As Becker and Coleman (1988, 200) point out,
It is important that offenders have accurate information
regarding male and female anatomy, sexual response
cycles, and sexual behavior and attitudes. The
knowledge can reduce the offender’s feelings of sexual
inadequacy and result in a more satisfying sexual relationship with his [adult] partner.
In order to de-sensitize both offenders and staff to talking about
sex, one day we retired to a classroom with a large blackboard, shut
the door and wrote the vernacular words for everything sexual we
could think of. As someone pointed out, the windows were damp
with condensation by the time the session was over.
RELAPSE PREVENTION
Two significant pieces of writing were required in our treatment
program—an autobiography and a relapse prevention plan. The autobiography is written and re-written to include more data as suggested by treatment staff. Getting an overview of one’s life is therapeutic, and filling in the details as requested can be enlightening,
often revealing unrecognized patterns and schemas. The autobiography is assigned toward the beginning of treatment,
and the relapse prevention plan a little later. In writing a relapse
prevention plan, therapist and offender pull together information
which helps the recovering offender recognize and itemize risk factors, triggers, coping responses and sources of support. Relapse
prevention is hard work and needs to be continuing. William
Pithers, addressing an Ohio conference in 1988, likened relapse
prevention to walking up a down escalator. If one stops walking he
is carried back in the direction of re-offending. “Men ask me when
they will get a certificate of completion of treatment. I tell them
that their next of kin will get it—it will be their death certificate.
Treatment will be a life-long process of vigilance.”
Since most treatment programs operate within a relapse prevention/cognitive behavioral framework, most include the following
components, as listed by Murphy and Smith (1996, 185):
1. Confronting denial
2. Identifying risk factors
3. Decreasing cognitive distortions
4. Increasing victim empathy
5. Increasing social competency
6. Decreasing deviant arousal
7. Where appropriate, addressing offender’s personal victimization
Finkelhor (1984) has drawn together factors from a number of researchers in the field and has conceptualized The Four-Preconditions Model of Sexual Abuse, which can be utilized along with relapse prevention. The first precondition, which may often be overlooked, is that the potential offender must want to molest. Otherwise, there would be nothing for his inhibitions to struggle with. If
he wants to, then at that time he will need to struggle with his internal inhibitions. If they are sufficiently robust, that precondition
will not come into play and there will be no sexual assault. However, if he wants to and his inhibitions fail, then he must overcome
any impediments to committing a sex offense, such as getting the
intended victim alone. Finally, he must find a way to undermine or
overcome the child’s possible resistance to sexual abuse. So there
are four pre-conditions, the absence of any one of which will prevent the potential sex offense from occurring.
Of course it’s far easier to avoid a tempting situation than escape
from one. When you find you have not successfully avoided the
situation, you can always escape, but it will be more difficult than
avoiding. Even if you haven’t escaped and you find yourself about
to cross the final line, take emergency measures! As Pithers pointed
out in 1988, “Even when one senses a sneeze coming, one can still
turn away, cover one’s mouth, or leave the room.” You have
learned that you are in control of your life and responsible for your
actions.
If well crafted and taken to heart, the relapse prevention plan will
become an important document for the offender. Ideally, it is a personalized blueprint for not reoffending, to be kept and updated forever. The molester who is no longer in treatment, or who has never
had treatment, will have to delve into his own mind and heart and
“work on himself.” Perhaps he will seek whatever therapy is available in his community.

DEVIANT FANTASY TREATMENT
Sex offenders pleasure themselves by rewarding deviant fantasies
of sex with children by masturbating to orgasm. In order to establish the existence of a deviant arousal pattern, a penile plethysmograph which measures the tumescence of the penis in response to
the presentation of graphic slides, audio tapes or videos may be
utilized, Unfortunately, some sex offenders have been able to fake
the testing of their sexual preference (Quinsey and Earls 1990,
289).  In addition to the amount of arousal elicited, the procedure may be
helpful in revealing the preferred sex and age range of the child, as
well as the degree of force fantasized. This procedure would be part
of the early assessment of the offender.

For treatment of a man’s deviant arousal pattern, there are three
behavioral options. In addition to instructing the offender to abruptly stop his deviant fantasies once he becomes aware of them, he can also be encouraged to have the deviant fantasy while he
masturbates, up until the “point of no return,” and at that moment
to switch to a previously constructed fantasy of consenting sex with
another adult (which has been authored by the therapist and the
molester together.) That accomplished, the offender is instructed to
gradually move the timing of the switch earlier and earlier in the
scenario, until hopefully the deviant fantasy is totally replaced by
the vision of a successful, loving and consenting sexual encounter
with another adult.

A second approach is the use of “boredom tapes,” involving satiation, an extinction procedure in which the man climaxes and then
continues to repeatedly verbalize his strongest deviant interest
while continuing to masturbate to the point of boredom, then to
aversiveness, and finally to disgust at having to ruminate about the
deviant behavior. Salter (1988,117) has an excellent description of
this procedure. Having the offender audiotape his satiation sessions
so that the therapist can spot-check the tapes and teach the patient
to use the satiation procedure most effectively insures compliance
with the treatment. The historical development of this behavioral
approach is described by Marshall and Laws (2003).

A third behavioral technique is covert sensitization, as discussed
earlier in this chapter.
Our treatment program was in a small prison with meager material
support and minimal staff. We were limited in resources and could
not utilize the procedures described above. We were, however, extremely fortunate in state-sponsored training opportunities, a library of educational videos utilized in treatment, and access to conferences such as those sponsored by the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abuse (ATSA), in addition to peer support from
programs in other state prisons.

THE GOOD LIVES MODEL
Ward and Stewart (2003, 23) write that “the way to reduce
reoffending is to give individuals the necessary conditions to lead
better lives (i.e. ‘good’ lives) rather than simply to teach them how
to minimize their chances of being incarcerated.” The possible
goods will vary, but might include friendship, enjoyable work, loving relationships, sexual satisfaction and positive self-regard (ibid.,
28). A 2009 survey of 1,379 sex offender treatment programs conducted by the Safer Society listed the Good Lives Model (GLM)
as one of the top three treatment choices in a third of U.S. adult and
adolescent programs and in one half or more of the Canadian adult
programs (McGrath et al. 2010).

THERAPY FOR OWN VICTIMIZATION
Thomas et al. (2012), who researched childhood experiences of
child sexual abusers, warned that “unless the victimization of sexually abused adult offenders is taken seriously, the offenders may
not be able to develop empathy for their child victims” (ibid., 187).
Their in-depth study of 23 perpetrators found that half had been
sexually abused as children.

ANSWER TO RIVER CROSSING
Of the twenty responses to the scenario earlier in this chapter, five
men said it was Mary’s own fault, with one man adding that “she
should have stayed home.” Nine men felt it was the husband’s
fault. Four thought it was the ferryboat owner’s fault. One thought
it was the lover’s fault. And ONE decided the fault lay with the
man who killed her—in other words, the person responsible for the
killing was the killer. His answer was correct. (The first time I
heard of this exercise was during a training presentation on Victim
to Victimizer by Dr. Carolyn Cunningham August 29, 1989. I have
come across it several times since.)

 

WEDNESDAY’S Chapter 3

Published September 28, 2021 by Nan Mykel
I’ve lived a long life… I won’t be home Wednesday so had to post this today (9/28/2021)

HOW COULD I DO IT!   FALLOUT — A Survivor Talks to Incest Offenders

3
HOW COULD I DO IT?
“How can they do it?” is a question in the minds of most non-offenders confronted with a case of incest.
Even after we understand why some men molest children, the question of how they can do it remains unanswered. How can they bring
themselves to destroy a child’s trusting innocence? (For some offenders, being innocent is the major attraction.) This question really should be directed at the first time rather than the most recent
time, which may be the one that brought a man to prison. Too many
offenders maintain that “this” time is the first time, and so that distinction is a lost opportunity for insight.
The incest offender has developed the ability to break taboos
through the use of contorted thoughts and beliefs variously called
thinking errors, cognitive distortions, deviant thinking or just stinking thinking, as discussed below. Core beliefs about self, others,
and the world have been found to underlie behavior patterns and
instances of thinking errors, and are known as schemas.
Most men who commit incest, especially those who were abused
themselves as children, continue in denial of its effects. Neither
survivors nor victims-turned-perpetrators let themselves realize
how destructive their own molestation is likely to have been. One
imprisoned incest offender in our program, when told during treatment that incest was destructive for the victim, denied it, saying,
“What about me? I was molested and I turned out okay.”
Initially I had trouble understanding how anyone, especially any
victim of child sexual abuse, could grow up to become a perpetrator himself, much less deny that it is harmful. As if the situation
were not sufficiently complex, an exploration of mindreading in
sex offenders has raised questions about their capacity for empathy. (Mindreading in this sense is a “theory of mind” and refers to
how well an individual can understand the motivations and feelings
of others.) Castellino et al. (2011, 1621) concluded that their findings supported the hypothesis that “sexual offenders suffer from a
deficit in their ability to understand and attribute mental states both
to themselves and to others.” As a group, the sexual offenders performed worse than non-offenders on each of four scales assessing
aspects of empathy. Moreover, the findings indicated that “the
worse is the score on the theory of mind task, the higher the risk of
reoffending” (ibid.).

THINKING ERRORS
Since behavior is largely a product of thinking, the deviant
thoughts of sex offenders are of utmost importance. Incest offenders in one study were found to possess deviant attitudes in three
domains: sexual entitlement; perceiving children to be sexually attractive and sexually motivated; and minimizing the harm caused
by sexual abuse of children (Hanson, Gizzarelli, and Scott 1994).

My father had deviant thinking errors in all three domains.
Pollock and Hashmall analyzed over 250 justificatory statements
from 86 child molesters and divided them into an “excuse syntax”
useful in the formalization of judgments about the extent to which
an individual accepts or denies responsibility for his actions, his
degree of defensiveness, and the logical consistency of his justifications.
1. Denial of fact (“Nothing happened.”)
2. Denial of responsibility (“Something happened
but it wasn’t my idea.”)
3. Denial of sexual intent (“Something happened and
it was my idea but it wasn’t sexual.”)
4. Denial of wrongfulness (“Something happened
and it was my idea, and it was sexual but it wasn’t
wrong.”)
5. Denial of self-determination (“Something happened and it was my idea and it was sexual and it
was wrong, but there were extenuating factors.”)  (Pollock and Hashmall 1991, 57).
Their study was conducted to aid clinicians who routinely determine the probability of reoffending based on the perpetrator’s excuses.
I see that the only statement that would apply to my father is the
denial of wrongfulness, as evidenced by his statement when my sister was stricken with polio, described later in this chapter.

As Maltz and Holman (1987, 18) observed,
It is this distorted thinking that encourages an offender
to victimize the most vulnerable person available—a
child who depends on him.

Perpetrators make their behavior acceptable in their own eyes by
their twisted thinking. As Salter (1988, 124) has pointed out, “Their
motivated self-deception acts as a ‘releaser’ which allows the offender’s destructive urges to be acted on. Without such rationalizations the offender may have some capacity to resist his deviant
attraction and to seek help when his own coping mechanisms fail.”

The victim may not say “no.” Many child molesters interpret silence as permission, oblivious to the unreality of the incestuous situation for the child. Mistaking the physical response for the ego’s
response appears to be a common error. (Just because the body responds does not mean the child understands what is happening and
consents to it.)
I recall several years ago when a man brought suit against some
women who had raped him. There were disbelieving jokes about
the incident, but our bodies are built so that stimulation of the genitals, even forced, can be pleasurable in the genitals. But we are
more than our genitals, and much of mankind’s anguish and nightmares reflect the struggle between right and wrong. What could be
more hauntingly “wrong” to a child than “doing the nasty with
Daddy” and coming back for more?

The defense mechanism of projection is involved when individuals
block their own urges, behaviors or feelings from awareness and
instead imagine that they exist in another person or persons. A not
uncommon thinking error in our society, that women “really want
it” even though they say “no,” is an example. This thinking error
may even trace back to the influence of genetic differences between males and females (Buss 1985, 314). How easy, then, for sex
offenders to convince themselves that their victim “wanted it” and
therefore wasn’t damaged by the abuse.

A sexual offender needs to internalize the information on correcting thinking errors and apply it to himself. In our prison program
one man retained glaring thinking errors but made a perfect score
on a lengthy True and False test of these errors. We had him take
the test a second time, by himself, because we could not believe he
had such a good intellectual comprehension of thinking errors, yet
failed to see how they applied to him.

EXAMPLES OF THINKING ERRORS

BLAMING THE VICTIM
Devaluing and attributing blame to the victim covers dehumanization (“she was a whore, anyway”) and attribution of blame (“most
women want to be raped.”)

CHILDREN CAN BENEFIT FROM INCEST
She loves special attention, she’ll really love this;

I have to show my grandson how to masturbate—how else would he find out?

I’m in love with her—this is a way to show it;

she needs sex education by a loving partner;

she looks sad—I’ll make her feel good.

“I was only teaching her what she should keep her boy friends from doing” (reported by Frisbie 1969, 168).

BLAMING AND MISATTRIBUTIONS
She runs around in her nighties so she must want it;

she’s seven going on seventeen;

she dances sexy, like on MTV;

she likes to sit in my lap, so she must want it.

CHANCES OF BEING APPREHENDED
Nobody will believe her if she tells; she wouldn’t turn me in—she
loves me too much.

SPECIAL JUSTIFICATIONS
My wife has been unfaithful—I’ll get even;

my wife cut me off—I’ll show her I don’t need her;

I didn’t want to go outside the family
for sex; it’s not like I’m committing adultery.

SENSE OF ENTITLEMENT
I’m oversexed and have to have it—my wife isn’t interested;

I’m her father so I’m entitled to check on how she’s developing physically;

I’m just breaking her in for her husband;

I brought her into the world, so I own her body.

CHILDREN AREN’T HURT BY INCEST
It isn’t harmful—

Errol Flynn did it;

she can’t get pregnant yet, so there can be no harm;

it happened to me and it didn’t hurt me.

MINIMIZATION
It’s not like it was really sex;

it’s not like it was her first time;

we were only playing around; we were just playing the tickling game.

WARPED LOGIC
The judge proved I didn’t touch her;

the doctor proved I didn’t touch her;

when I woke up she was unzipping my fly—what could
I do?  Groth’s response to the latter, as widely quoted, is “What would he
do if she had been going through his wallet when he woke up?” He
suggests that if the child is behaving in a sexually explicit fashion,
“a responsible adult will not encourage or promote such behavior,
but instead will correct it and try to determine why the child is behaving in this manner” (Groth 1982, 234).

When my sister had been taken to the emergency room with what
turned out to be polio, my father started touching me sexually and
I said, “How can you do that at a time like this?” He said: “If it’s
not wrong other times, why is it wrong now?”
I should have said, “It is wrong, all the time!” (Why didn’t I say
that? But I was speechless.) Besides, I was afraid he would punish
me if I admitted engaging in something I knew was wrong.

I received the following letter from my father after he had molested
me for some time. I had succeeded in escaping from the home, and
my mother had succeeded in separating from him due to his longterm abusive alcoholismk
June 2, 1953
Dear Nancy,
I hope that you get to go to Berea, or otherwise get to go to college. But, whether you go to college, or work, or get married, or
all three, you are still, in a very real sense, about to go out into
the world, and whether, as I say, your world is to be the business
or social or college world, I do not think that you are prepared
for it; to wit, you do not have a personal code of ethics that will
permit you to fit into it. It has appeared to me that your code
consists of doing whatever seems to suit your convenience, comfort or pleasure, then trying to justify it by appealing, when possible, to someone else’s code, failing which you justify it with “I
don’t consider it wrong.” The only fly in the ointment is that I
am not sure that you consider anything wrong, because you
have no code to govern yourself by. You scorn both religious
teachings and parental counsel, and you consider one’s conscience not only unreliable, but an imposter.
For instance, here is how your code will run counter with the
normal code that you will come in contact with in the near future. Your mother tells me that you and Carole came to her
apartment fuming. “I have always behaved myself,” said you.
“And I am not going to stay home and sleep.” By the normal
code of ethics, you were not behaving yourself when you made
that statement. For one thing, you were expressing an intention
to disobey your mother’s injunction to sleep at home. You were
not violating your code there, of course, because there is nothing
in your code that suggests that you should obey your parents.
But what is your code? …
Here, I think, is where your lack of a code of ethics may have
done, or may yet do, irreparable harm. No matter how much you
felt constrained to justify yourself to your mother—no matter
how much you felt constrained to defend Carole—you knew that
I am fighting with my life to save my tottering home, the destruction of which will mean the culmination of a twenty-year
romance that, incidentally, brought you into the world. If you
had a code of ethics worth a tinker’s dam, you would never have
brought Carole into your mother’s apartment. Here is what you
would have told Carole: “Carole, you know that I am your
friend. But you know, too, that my father is trying right now,
with might and main, to win back my mother for his wife. You
know that you want him to lose in that attempt. You know that
you have an antipathy for my father, and your mother knows
that you have an antipathy for my father. If you come into our
apartment at this time, the antipathy that you have for my father might affect my mother subconsciously, and my father
might therefore lose his fight to restore his home.”
Nancy, ten years from now I do not believe that you will be
happy that your mother and father are divorced. And I do not
believe that you will be happy that you gave Carole aid and comfort in her efforts to bring it about. If she divorces me, I forgive
you for your part in bringing it about, or in not doing more to
discourage it. And, since you don’t believe in God, I suppose it
doesn’t much matter to you whether He forgives you or not. But
I have a feeling that, just a few years from now, you will be finding it difficult to forgive yourself. At any rate, however you may
regard me, I remain with truly best wishes for your greatest happiness,
Your Old Pop.

What was most surprising was the fact that he seemed to forget
who he was writing to. He must have known that I knew about his
own ethical limitations, and yet he was so successful in projecting
and compartmentalizing them that he could write the above “with
a straight face.”

I remember that about this time he asked me if I had ever “told”
my mother, whereupon I replied in the negative. According to him,
my mother had said, “I know what you’ve been up to.” He didn’t
know what she was referring to, and I presume was too afraid to
ask.

It is just now, only a few weeks before submitting this book for publication, that I remember having told Carole about the incest. I’m
sure elsewhere in this book I have stated that I never told anyone
until years later, but I forgot. Did my father not guess why Carole
had such antipathy for him? How did he explain her antipathy to
himself? At the time all this was going on, Carole and I were not even “girlfriends.”

 

The Mendacity of Joe Biden

Published September 27, 2021 by Nan Mykel

Appears to be the sad truth. Why?

Repeating Islands

An Op-Ed piece by Charles M. Blow for The New York Times.

Joe Biden, once again, disappointed many of the same Black voters who were his strongest supporters. How much of this can or should Black people stand?

I always have to start columns like this with an upfront stipulation: Having Biden in the White House is exponentially better than having four more years of Donald Trump, and in a two-party system, you must support one of the two parties’ candidates. Protest abstentions are suicidal. Democrats who at least talk a more racially inclusive game are head and shoulders above Republicans who either court or abide open racists.

It’s not that Biden hasn’t advanced policies that benefit the African American community, efforts that the White House is quick to laud — as it should — when he faces criticism.

With that out of the way, there is still an…

View original post 756 more words

Thoughts on the Throne

Published September 25, 2021 by Nan Mykel

 

 

 

 

 

 

Will you think less of me if I

tell you most of my thoughts come while

sitting on the throne, like Rodin?

 

Today it came to me how like

trying to milk a cow is the

urgency of writing a poem.

 

You see, as a child I never

got the hang of correct milking,

and as an elder never tried.

 

A small library has sprouted

in my throne room, and I keep on

planning

to install

a photo

Of Rodin

on the wall.

 

 

CHOICE?

Published September 22, 2021 by Nan Mykel

https://arthur.io/art/yoshitoshi-kanemaki/11

It’s almost surreal, seeing the anti-mask protesters, wanting choice over their bodies.   Wait–their bodies?  Resisting the government’s wanting to take away their choice not to wear masks, which most likely carries the risk of endangering the lives of others?  How bizarre.  How can a relatively rational population fragment so?

I was startled today to discover I was following a misinformation word press blog.  No longer.  To think I didn’t spot it right away….

Real Issues…

Published September 22, 2021 by Nan Mykel

 are not getting discussed enough

Keith (musings of an old fart)

writes that…

It amazes me how so much time can be spent on created wedge issues for political gain and so little on real ones.

The global (and US) water crisis and need for accelerated climate change action are key environmental issues per the World Economic Forum. And, the latter makes the former concern even worse. These are not future problems as they are harming us now.

Investing in deteriorated infrastructure while also reducing the US deficit and debt are at odds, but both are needed. So we must be judicious with spending cuts and revenue increases, as both are needed to solve the math problem. And, too many of our infrastructure needs are ten years overdue.

And, we must stop this degradation of civil rights that were long fought for. Attacking the right to vote under the guise of staged and unproven election fraud claims is abhorrent in the eyes of this independent and former Republican (and Democrat) voter and should be in the eyes of more elected officials.

Nan says: My heart goes out to Biden for all the leftovers he is dealing with.

INCEST – Chapter 2

Published September 22, 2021 by Nan Mykel

New Chapter Wednesdays…

Fallout…A Survivor Talks to Incest Offenders

WHY DID I DO IT?
The late Dr. William Glasser (1965) often began his lectures on
Reality Therapy with the following scenario: “The phone rings.
You answer it. Why do you answer it?”
None of the replies volunteered by the audience offers the response
he is looking for. “You answer it because you want to.” It is true
that the machinations of choice are at work. But why do you want
to?
After the abuse began I puzzled over why my father was different
from the fathers of my cousins.
Groth states that the sexual offender is not committing his crimes
to achieve sexual pleasure “any more than the alcoholic is drinking
to quench a thirst” (1982, 227). He suggests that other needs being
met include but are not limited to loneliness, a sense of power, and
attention. At best, treatment can only reduce the risk of reoffending. Gaining or re-gaining control of the behavior is the goal, as
with treatment for alcoholism. Groth is aware of the perpetrator’s
emotional over-investment in his victim and refers to “the sense of
pleasure, comfort and safety he experiences in the relationship with
her” (230).
Sgroi, Blick, and Porter refer to incest offenders as “me-first” individuals for whom the sexual relationship with a child feels “safer,
less threatening, less demanding, less problematic than a relationship with an adult” (1982, 27).
A study of the childhood experiences of child sexual abuse perpetrators (Thomas et al. 2012, 195) revealed that
many participants never had an opportunity to grasp
the meaning of the concept of love, nor to differentiate
it from sex. Thus, they never evolved to more adult
sexual behavior but continued to seek the kind of sexual activity to which they were first introduced and
which, in some cases, had filled their early longings for
meaningful contact with another human being.
Other professionals warn against the tendency to view the offender’s behavior as a longing for human intimacy. Herman (1990, 183) suggests that reformulating the offending in this manner is to
detoxify it, to make it more acceptable. Aye, there’s the twist. Some
therapists, like surgeons who feel a need to keep their emotional
distance from patients, often struggle against the tendency to pity
the man who molests. I was aware of the fuzzy cognitive state I slid
into when experiencing empathy for the men in our program. Herman cautions, “In attempting to establish an empathic connection
with the offender, the would-be-therapist runs the risk of credulously accepting the offender’s rationalizations for his crimes” (ibid.).
Having the ability to corrupt a child, having the ability to steal her
innocence, having the ability to show her something about life she
didn’t know—all these are powerful rewards for the man whose
life is so unsatisfactory that it contains little more than a sexual
preference that may not even be sexual.
Four major factors that contribute to molestation have been proposed and widely accepted (Finkelhor 1984). They are sexual
arousal, preferring children emotionally, being blocked from an
adult relationship, and failure of the offender’s inhibitions. A reliable assessment of the offender’s dynamics is often difficult. Information is provided to the offender in treatment, however, and he is
invited to consider the information and share with his group which
dynamics he thinks apply to him. Similarly, this book can help any
unapprehended molester ferret out his own patterns. Survivors may
also use the material to make some sense of their experience.
In the prison program we utilized Finkelhor’s Four Factor conceptualization (Finkelhor, 1984), fitting it into a mnemonic device
(BEDS) in order to aid overlearning the material. (We re-arranged
his factors to enable the device):
B – Blockage
E – Emotional Congruence
D – Disinhibition
S – Sexual Arousal
BLOCKAGE
A man can be blocked from consorting with another adult due to
internal or situational factors. A shy, socially awkward and insecure man may find sex with another adult too anxiety- producing.
Occasionally a man experiencing the breakup of a relationship or
separation from his partner may turn to a child instead of another
adult because in his mind molesting a child is not being unfaithful,
whereas he may consider sex with another adult to be adultery. It
is true that thinking errors are rampant in this population, and many
child molesters are overly moralistic. Some deny themselves the
sexual release of masturbation and maintain that molesting a child
is less sinful than masturbation or adultery. One of the men in our
program realized with surprise that he had felt molesting his niece
was morally preferable to having sex with another adult.
In Mrazek’s experience (1981, 105), “Of all the contributing factors mentioned in the literature, the most predictive are likely to be
the absence of a strong satisfying marital bond and prior incestuous
behavior somewhere in the family.”
Some men erroneously believe that there are limited alternatives
available to them if the penis is no longer functional. A man who
is unable to perform with women may turn to children, since children are less likely to criticize his performance or make unfavorable comparisons of his genitals. Becker and Coleman (1988, 200)
refer to the “sexual myth that an erect penis is necessary to satisfy
a sexual partner. The unfortunate equating of sex with penile-vaginal intercourse can result in considerable performance anxiety, a
major cause of sexual dysfunction.” In rare cases men with misshapen or micro-penises turn to children instead of other adults capable of making comparisons. Some offenders admit that they
chose children because they were easier to deal with than women.
Gaddini (1983, 358) sees incest as an early developmental failure.
She writes, “In no way is incest close to mature adult sexuality.”
She sees it as a very primitive sort of sensuality … a continuous
acting-out on the basis of needs.” The following letter from my father years ago would appear to illustrate such an early developmental failure:
MY FATHER’S STORY  (by my father):
The Two Three Four Three Bears
Once upon a time, there were two bears, Mama Bear and Cubby
Bear. Now, Cubby Bear loved Mama Bear dearly, and Mama
Bear thought there just wasn’t anybody in the whole, wide
world like her Little Cubby Bear.
Cubby Bear would climb up on Mama Bear, and put his little
paws around her, and Mama Bear would say “M-mmmmmmm!”
and would squeeze little Cubby Bear real tight. And Mama Bear
would say, “What does Mama’s little Cubby Bear think he is doing up there?” And the little Cubby Bear would chortle with
glee, because he loved Mama Bear just like Mama Bear loved
him.
One day, a package came down from heaven—or somewhere—
addressed to Mama Bear and the Cub Bear. They opened the
package, and found little Nancy Bear! And the three bears lived
happily ever after—or at least until—
One day, another package arrived—and, you guessed it—there
was little Mary Bear! “Uh-oh!” said Mama Bear, who had read
all the latest books. “The book says that ‘Once upon a time there
were three bears, and here we are with four. This will never do,”
and Mama Bear wouldn’t play any more with Cubby Bear. And
she would tell him, “You are not Cubby Bear. You are Grumpy
Bear. But the Cub Bear either could not, or would not, take the
hint and he kept on loving Mama Bear right on, and Mama Bear
didn’t know what to do!
Now, Nancy Bear, when she got older, began to read all the latest books. And she, too, found out that once there were three
bears, and she talked the matter over with Mama Bear. But, try
though they would, they could not make the Cub Bear understand that he was not the Cub Bear any longer, but that just
made him want to be the Cub Bear all the more, so Nancy Bear
and Mama Bear didn’t know what to do!
Then, one day Mama Bear and Nancy Bear saw Grumpy Bear
(because—let’s face it—he wasn’t a Cub Bear any longer, he was
Grumpy Bear) skipping rope. Nancy Bear said to Mama Bear,
“I know, Mama Bear! Let’s give Grumpy Bear more and more
rope, and maybe Grumpy Bear will hang himself!”
So they gave Grumpy Bear more and more rope, and still more
rope, and—sure enough—Grumpy Bear hung himself. Now,
when Grumpy Bear found out that he had hung himself, he
weeped and wailed, and begged for them all to let him get unhung again. And Mama Bear said, “No, Grumpy Bear. You
hung yourself, you can get unhung yourself.” And Grumpy Bear
said, “I am not Grumpy Bear, I am the Cub Bear.” But Mama
Bear had forgotten that there had ever been a Cub Bear, and
Nancy Bear didn’t care if there had ever been a Cub Bear. And
Mary Bear didn’t know what was a Cub Bear, so Grumpy Bear
hanged, and hanged, and hanged. And thereby hangs a tale, but
not like in the old days, when—
The tale itself was passing fair,
And it all belonged to the Cubby Bear.
The End

Men for whom the blockage factor is significant may be more
likely to prefer and fantasize their victims as young versions of
adults. The growing tendency of parents to dress their young children in provocatively-cut “swinger” garb makes it easier for these
men to transfer their sexual desires onto children.
SEXUAL AROUSAL
Sexual arousal is another of Finkelhor’s factors. A history of the
offender’s own sexual abuse as a child—possible imprinting—may
make the child a primary sexual object in the eyes of the offender,
in addition to the fact that he may have observed the adult-child
paradigm within the family. Developmental antecedents are a continuing area of research in this field. In rare cases a hormonal imbalance or neurological anomaly may tip the scales. Child pornography may also be a culprit, with the potential for sexual arousal in
predisposed individuals. Regarding the juryman discussed earlier,
perhaps he had been victimized as a child, either within or out of
memory, and viewing the child pornography was sufficient to
breach the dam of longstanding inhibitions. Sleeping in the same
bed with a child has also been known to precipitate sexual arousal
in some cases, leading to abuse. For information on treatment of
deviant sexual arousal see Chapter 4.
EMOTIONAL ATTRACTION
A third factor which can contribute to molestation of children has
been termed “emotional congruence,” which refers to the degree of
comfort with, emotional attraction to, or identification with, children among men who molest. Those who deny their culpability will
say without batting an eye, “I would never molest a child; I love
children!” And they often do, demonstrating by their statement the
presence of marked thinking errors. Children can also be seen as
attractive because they are passive, enabling the offender to experience a degree of dominance that he lacks with other adults.
Groth (1982, 230) speaks of the incest offender’s
emotional overinvestment in his victim; his monopolization of her time; his restriction of her outside interests, activities and relationships; his sexual preoccupation with her; the role-reversal in their relationship
with her being regarded more as a peer than as a child;
the identification he forms with his victim, the narcissistic sense of entitlement to her, and his projection of
his own needs and desires on her; his preoccupation
with fantasies about the victim, and the sense of pleasure, comfort, and safety he experiences in the relationship with her.
Some child molesters who are emotionally attracted to children feel
childlike themselves, and thus prefer the company of other children. I recall one inmate who, upon being paroled for a non-sexual
offense, began telling me enthusiastically how much he preferred
the company of children, and that “they are the only ones you can
trust.” Needless to say, I had my suspicions about him.
DISINHIBITION
Before a sex offense can occur, the potential perpetrator must have
the desire to offend, he must have physical access to the victim,
and he must be able to overcome the victim’s resistance. However,
even in the presence of all these conditions, sexual abuse will not
occur if the would-be perpetrator’s inhibitions against offending
are in place. Therefore, instilling inhibitions against sexual abuse
is one of the primary goals of treatment, and effective techniques
must be overlearned and strengthened. Unfortunately, after the inhibitions have failed once, they are easier to breach. A man may go
thirty years without giving in to his illegal desires, but it may not
be another thirty years before he does so again. It may be the next
day.
Besides alcohol, disinhibiting factors include abuse of drugs, an
acute negative mood change, and child pornography or other
source of sexual arousal. Anger and the seeking of revenge are
other disinhibitors, as demonstrated by sexual assaults on children
during visitations with an estranged parent. Thinking errors can
also be a powerful disinhibiting factor, as delineated in Chapter 3.
Like silently rising water against a dam, one pressure added to another can overcome the barriers of inhibition, and once breached
the resistance is greatly decreased, or non-existent. It becomes easier and easier to break the law and ignore one’s own values. Occasionally an individual’s inhibitions will be immediately dissolved
upon his own victimization, and he will respond by identifying
with his or her abuser and acting out against others, in an attempt
to regain a sense of power.
I find it remarkable that I remember the day I became aware of
“floaters” in my eye. I must have been nine years old, and told my
mother I saw things but wasn’t sure they were really there. To her
credit, she did take me to our pediatrician. His first question was
whether my father was still drinking, whereupon I said ecstatically,
“Oh no! He’s quit drinking! He hasn’t had a drink in a week, has
he, Mother?” (I assume it was their exchange of glances that
flagged the incident in my memory.)
Now I’m recalling that Daddy did have a chance to change, via
attending Alcoholics Anonymous. At some point (early 1946?) he
ran into a parked car while drinking. The judge must have sentenced him to attend AA, at least once, because I seem to remember
attending one of his meetings. I don’t recall the content of the meeting, only the room it was in.
At the time he first molested me my father had been an alcoholic
for twenty-five years, but he was not drunk that evening. He never
drank without eventually passing out, but that night he was sober.
It is my memory that my father lived in bed, except when he went
to work as a bookkeeper five days a week. (Three years later he
would be fired for passing out on the floor at his work.)
What disinhibited my father? That night I had bounced boisterously on his bed, in a rare fit of exuberance, while my mother fixed
dinner. I suspect my roughhousing with him while he was in bed
that day was a primary immediate disinhibitor for him. Apparently
he became aroused and when I settled under the covers with him
to listen to our only radio, he touched me. My first thought was
what would my cousins think if they knew Daddy was like our
grandfather? He later told me that when Mother brought in supper
that night she reached under the covers and found his penis erect
but made no comment.
Shortly before initiation of the incest, my mother had confessed to
a single act of infidelity years earlier. He now threw it back in her
face, although he had promised not to mention it again. (How do I
know? We lived in a very small duplex with thin walls.) Experiencing what must have been for him a blow to his manhood may therefore have been a disinhibitor, in addition to his sexual arousal and
significantly warped thinking.
About a week after he first touched me, my father referred to it. He
said my mother had asked him to educate me about sex. He also
said he thought he was in love with me, that incest was a capital
crime in our state and that I was not to tell anyone, ever. I promised. He told me experts say incest is harmful, but that he didn’t
believe it. He pointed out that Errol Flynn had sex with a minor
and wasn’t convicted for it.
Looking back now I realize that an additional disinhibiting factor
was that he knew that his father had molested within the family. He
also suspected (correctly) that his father had molested me, much
earlier.
“EVERYBODY’S DOIN’ IT!”
All right, I will admit this is not one of Finkelhor’s Factors leading
to sexual abuse, but I believe it was a strong motivator in my being
molested within the family.
As Courtois (1988, 40) observes,
Multiple incest in one family may be the norm. It appears that in many families, the breakdown of the incest taboo allows for its continuance either within one
generation (horizontally) and/or across generations
(vertically). … Incest is now believed to be transmitted
from one generation to the next through several such
mechanisms.
This remains a controversial topic, however, as reported earlier.
IN SUMMARY: MY FATHER’S MOTIVATIONS
How should we categorize the influence of knowledge of incest
within the family? Modeling? Certainly at the very least it contributed to my father’s disinhibition to commit incest. Other disinhibitors included whatever lifelong alcoholism had done to his brain
and self-esteem; whatever internal wound had resulted from my
mother’s confession; and perhaps a desire to get even with her,
added to her request that he teach me about sex. Some pretty weird
thinking errors had also been established, as revealed by his discussion of earlier reading on the subject of incest.
I believe that Blockage was a factor, in that he was too fearful to
seek sex with an adult outside the family, being unable to deal with
the specter of rejection and/or exposure. Probably his concept of
“adultery” also kept him homebound. In addition, he was blocked
from a meaningful adult relationship by an apparent developmental
failure (see above). In later years, upon visiting my grandparent’s
house where he then lived, I was shocked to find a maudlin tribute
to mothers, framed and on the wall in the entranceway.
Emotional Congruence came into play after he had elicited my admiration for his intellect and tennis playing abilities and my willingness to pay court to him by listening, and listening. He was hungry for attention, I now realize. I did enjoy his sense of humor.
His Sexual Arousal in response to my bouncing on the bed was an
“accident waiting to happen,” as suggested by the fact that he had
already taken me to two square dances as his partner. (My mother
“had nothing to wear.”)
THE PATHWAYS MODEL
As noted, more than one of Finkelhor’s Four Factors must be present in order for child molestation to occur. (The Disinhibition factor is always present.) A complementary model has been introduced in which all of four—other—distinct and interacting psychological conditions must be present in order for the sexual transgression to occur. This Pathways Model, proposed by Ward and
Siegert (2002), highlights offender deficits and consists of deficits
with intimacy and social skills, distorted sexual scripts, emotional
dysregulation, and cognitive distortion. Incidentally, all four of
these deficits were present in my father.
HARDWIRING OR OTHER ANOMALIES
Physiological abnormalities occasionally contribute to offending.
One elderly man became increasingly jealous of his teenage granddaughter’s boyfriends; six months later he was dead of a brain tumor. In addition, several studies have found evidence that some
child molesters may be “hardwired” differently than others. For instance, two out of three pedophiles show temporal lobe dysfunction
in the left lobe of the brain, as measured by CT scans (Langevin
1990, 109). It is unclear, however, what the differences reflect.
I believe my paternal grandfather was neurologically impaired. I
sensed he was somehow different, but I did not (and still do not)
know in what way. I also do not know what abuse, if any, he experienced as the youngest of six boys in his family of origin. Once I
was told he had hardening of the arteries, and in recent years a
family member said he had Tourette’s— which my father also
had—but I do not recall ever witnessing any Tourette’s symptoms
in my grandfather. I can recall at least one marked episode of my
father grunting and ticcing, however, but I must have grown to ignore the signs. I never puzzled about them, apparently just accepted the behavior. Perhaps that could have been an issue in my
father’s blockage from others.

Use of Drones Questioned — Reblog

Published September 22, 2021 by Nan Mykel
A refreshing blog by  By lobotero in Foreign policyInternational SituationsSociety

The US has had another drone strike against terrorists in Afghanistan….and it was a large mistake on the Pentagon’s part……and the Pentagon held a presser to explain the monumental screw-up…..

The Pentagon retreated from its defense of a drone strike that killed multiple civilians in Afghanistan last month, announcing Friday that an internal review revealed that only civilians were killed in the attack, not an Islamic State extremist as first believed. “The strike was a tragic mistake,” Marine Gen. Frank McKenzie, head of US Central Command, told a Pentagon news conference, per the AP. McKenzie said the vehicle was struck “in the earnest belief” that the targeted vehicle posed an imminent threat. “I am now convinced that as many as 10 civilians, including up to seven children, were tragically killed in that strike,” he said.

“Moreover, we now assess that it is unlikely that the vehicle and those who died were associated with ISIS-K, or a direct threat to US forces,” he added, referring to the Islamic State group’s Afghanistan affiliate. For days after the Aug. 29 strike, Pentagon officials asserted that it had been conducted correctly, despite numerous civilians being killed, including children. News organizations later raised doubts about that version of events, reporting that the driver of the targeted vehicle was a longtime employee at an American humanitarian organization and citing an absence of evidence to support the Pentagon’s assertion that the vehicle contained explosives.

The drone did what drones do best…..kill civilians.

The media and the Pentagon always give the benefits for the use of drones…..like saves lives (debatable)…..it is precision bombing…..and it is ethical…..

Let’s take a look at all the myths you have heard about drone warfare…..

Drones have become the signature tool of 21st-century warfare, particularly by US forces in the “war on terror”. The fundamental rationale for drone use relies on their “surgical precision”, supposedly saving civilian lives.

But headlines show us this isn’t true. A recent US drone strike in Kabul, Afghanistan mistakenly killed 43-year-old aid worker Zemari Ahmadi, along with nine members of his family, including seven children. This idea of precision is just one of many pervasive myths about drones that I’ve set out to dispel in my research.

Military technology aims to inflict maximum damage to the enemy while minimising our own losses of manpower and material. Drones have advantages compared to piloted aircraft, primarily that they protect the lives of those conducting strikes. This has lulled us into a false sense of security about the nature of war, suggesting that conflicts can be won from a distance, with minimum harm to civilians, in wars that are ethical and respect international law.

https://theconversation.com/five-myths-about-drone-warfare-busted-133660

Sorry war should not be made easier to carry out…..I do not see this as a step forward…..just a step into the larger mud hole…a hole that keeps expanding….

 

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